General notion of english nouns
Общее понятие английских существительных
Authors: Abdikhan Simbat Kalybekkyzy - Republic of Kazakhstan, South Kazakhstan State Pedagogical University, master's student; Smanova Gaziza Ileskanovna - Republic of Kazakhstan, Shymkent, South Kazakhstan State Pedagogical University, PhD, acting associate Professor; Zhekebaeva Rayhan Dildakhanovna - Republic of Kazakhstan, Shymkent, South Kazakhstan State Pedagogical University, Master's teacher
Авторы: Абдихан Сымбат Калыбеккызы - Республика Казахстан, Южно-Казахстанский государственный педагогический университет, магистрант; Сманова Газиза Илескановна- Республика Казахстан, г. Шымкент, Южно-Казахстанский государственный педагогический университет, к.п.н., и.о. доцента; Жекебаева Райхан Дилдахановна - Республика Казахстан, г. Шымкент, Южно -Казахстанский государственный педагогический университет, магистр преподаватель
Annotation: The article deals with the general concept of English nouns.
Аннотация: В статье рассматривается общее понятия английских существительных.
Keyword: parts of speech ,noun, number, case, singular, plural
Ключевые слова: части речи, существительное, число, падеж, единственное число, множественное число
The word "noun" comes from the Latin meaning "name". Sanskrit grammar, such as nouns, was described by the ancient Greeks, such as Panini and Dionysius Torak, and was defined by their morphological properties. For example, in ancient Greece, nouns could be formed in a grammatical context, such as a dative or an accusative. On the other hand, verbs are not always attached to nouns such as past, present, or future. Aristotle also had the notion of onomata (noun) and remata (verbs), but this does not apply to our verbs and nouns. In her dissertation, Vinokurova discussed in detail the historical origin of nouns.
General classifications can be based on one criterion (such classifications are called homogeneous or monodifferential, or can be based on a set of several criteria (such classifications are called heterogeneous or polydifferential. The traditional classification of parts of speech is multilevel (heterogeneous)); - form - function '.
It is based on the study of their compatibility through their replacement test.
The test results allow us to create a typical model of the four main "positions" in English sentences: noun, verb, adjective, adverb .
Traditionally, all parts of speech are divided into conditional words and functional words at the highest level of classification. Traditionally, words with full nouns, consisting of nouns, verbs, adjectives, adjectives, pronouns, and numerals, are often subject to change and perform syntactic functions in the sentence. For example, a noun is traditionally described as part of speech: 1) the categorical meaning of the substance ("noun"), 2) the exact set of word-formation affixes, grammatical categories of number, case and article, predicative connections and adjective change; 3) important functions of the subject, object or predicate in the sentence. Thus, all other conditional parts of speech are described. Functional words that contain conjunctions, prepositions, articles, intersections, fractions and modal words, incomplete nominative meanings do not change and perform mediative, structural syntactic functions.
The application of the three main criteria in modern linguistics is mainly V.V.Vinogradov, L.V. Tscherba and others.
There are certain limitations and inconsistencies in the traditional classification of parts of speech, which some linguists doubt its scientific accuracy. First, the three dimensions apply only to the division of conditional words. As for functional words - prepositions, conjunctions, fractions, interactions, etc. - these classes of words do not distinguish general semantic or formal or functional properties, they are characterized by the absence of all three dimensions in any generalized form. Second, the status of so-called unconditional nouns and numbers in the traditional classification is also questionable, as they do not have their own syntactic functions, on the contrary, the different groups within these two classes are formally and functionally similar. properties of different conditional parts of speech: for example, cardinal numbers are significant, and ordinal numbers serve as adjectives; The same can be said of personal pronouns and possessive pronouns. Third, it is very difficult to draw strict boundaries between different classes of words, because there are always phenomena that are inseparable in their status. For example, infinite forms of verbs, such as infinitives, gerunds, I and II, are practically verb forms, but have some characteristics of the verb: they have no human or numerical forms, no extended or mood forms, and most importantly, they never have a predicate. does not perform the typical oral function. In addition, the sentence description of auxiliary verbs, augmented phrases, conjunctive nouns and pronouns, and many other groups of words have morphological characteristics of words, but as functional words, act as an intermediary constructive function in the sentence. There are also words that refute any classification; for example, many linguists doubt that words of agreement and disagreement, yes and no, can take any position in the classification of parts of speech .
These and a number of other issues have led to the search for alternative ways to classify linguistic lexical units. Some of them can be resolved by contradictions, if the parts of speech are considered as a rigorous scientific approach, a single basis for division; in other words, if there is a homogeneous or monodifferential classification of parts of speech.
It should be noted that the idea was not new. The first classification of parts of speech was homogeneous: in ancient Greek grammar words were divided into variable and immutable, mainly on the basis of formal properties; nouns, adjectives, and numerals were considered a large class of "names" because they were combined morphological objects. This classical linguistic tradition followed the first English grammar: Henry Sweet divided all English words into "unsolvable" and "inseparable". However, a well-functioning approach to describing high-inflation languages has been less effective for describing other languages .
The syntactic approach, which establishes word groups according to their functional characteristics, is more universal and applies to languages of different morphological types. The principles of monodifferential syntactic-distribution classification of words in English were introduced by representatives of American descriptive linguistics L. Bloomfield, Z. Harris and Ch. Potatoes.
Natural language phrases have different levels of properties. They have formal properties, such as what morphological prefixes and suffixes they can take and what types of phrases they can combine. at the same time, they have semantic properties, that is, properties related to their meanings. The definition of a noun at the top of this page is thus an official definition. This definition is unambiguous and has the advantage of being able to effectively distinguish nouns from nouns. However, it does not apply to nouns in all languages. For example, there are no specific articles in Russian, so it is impossible to identify nouns with them. Several attempts are made to identify nouns in terms of their semantic properties. Most of them are contradictory, but some are discussed below.
Words are divided into lexical and grammatical classes, which differ in formal and semantic features. They are traditionally called parts of speech. This term is simple and conditional and was introduced in the grammar of ancient Greece.
8 parts of speech in Latin: noun, pronoun, participle, verb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction.
In many languages with grammatical numbers, nouns, and sometimes other parts of speech, consist of two forms: singular, for a single copy of a concept, and plural, for several. Usually, the singular is an unlabeled form of the word, and the plural is obtained by infecting the singular. In English, this is the case: car / cars, box / boxes, person / men. There may be special nouns that look like plural singular: one fish / two fish.
List of literature:
1. Paul Eschholz. Language Awareness. Second Edition. Virginia Clark-New York: 2015. - 562p.
2. Barber Ch. Linguistic change in Present-Day English. Edinburgh, 2014. – 365p.
1. Пол Эшхольц. Знание языка. Второе издание. Вирджиния Кларк -Нью-Йорк: 2015. - 562 с.
2. Барбер Ч. Лингвистические изменения в современном английском языке. Эдинбург, 2014. – 365 с.