Educational testing as a means of assessment efficiency of the learning process
Образовательное тестирование как средство оценки эффективности учебного процесса
Authors: Zhanzak Balnur Talgatkyzy - Republic of Kazakhstan, South Kazakhstan State Pedagogical University, undergraduate; Smanova Gaziza Ileskanovna - Republic of Kazakhstan, Shymkent, South Kazakhstan State Pedagogical University, Ph.D., Acting Associate Professor; Zhekebaeva Raikhan Dildakhanovna - Republic of Kazakhstan, Shymkent, South Kazakhstan State Pedagogical University, Master teacher
Авторы: Жанзак Балнур Талгаткызы - Республика Казахстан, Южно-Казахстанский государственный педагогический университет, магистрант; Сманова Газиза Илескановна - Республика Казахстан, г. Шымкент, Южно-Казахстанский государственный педагогический университет, к.п.н., и.о. доцента; Жекебаева Райхан Дилдахановна - Республика Казахстан, г. Шымкент, Южно-Казахстанский государственный педагогический университет, магистр преподаватель
Annotation: The article presents the analysis results of the published data devoted to the problems of using the test as a way to the student knowledge qualitative assessment.
Аннотация: В статье представлены результаты анализа опубликованных данных, посвященных проблемам использования теста как способа качественной оценки знаний учащихся.
Keyword: objective assessments, of the level of knowledge, skills,flexibility, specificity and generality
Ключевые слова: объективные оценки уровня знаний, навыков, гибкости, специфичности и общности
It is currently determined that pedagogical tests helpget more objective assessments of the level of knowledge, skills,check the compliance of the requirements for the preparation of university graduates with the specifiedstandards, identify gaps in the preparation of students. The test is a toolconsisting of a qualimetrically verified system of test tasks,standardized procedure for conducting and pre-designedtechnology for processing and analyzing results, designed to measurequalities and properties of the personality, the change of which is possible in the processsystematic learning. Or a test - short standardizeda test that allows results to be quantified based on theirstatistical processing.The selection of the test task structure depends on what indicators and factors are of interest to the researcher of this group of people. Each of the tasks of the test in its essence represents a question, a problem for the subject. The answer to the question is always the elimination of some doubts, hesitation, uncertainty in the situation under consideration in order to obtain new ones,more precise knowledge.As you know, pedagogical tests are very diverse. From the point of view of the goals of application, one can single out : achievement tests,criteria-oriented tests that allow you to compare the level of individual educational achievements with the full amount of knowledge,skills and abilities,normative-oriented tests that compare subjects in terms of their educational achievements, certification tests that determine the degree of training, tests for predicting learning outcomes for the selectedlearning technologies.
Tests can be used for a comprehensive assessment of the conditionsubjects, for example, before the start of the learning process in order to assess their attitude to learning, their level of intellectual development, abilities in a particular academic subject, establishing the level of learning, the level of achievement in the field of knowledge under consideration.It should be noted that many of the listed tests have not yet found their application in universities and schools, their development and application is ahead. In addition, it is possible to create multifunctional tests, when the same test, when the method of its application and processing of results is changed,testing can be used for various purposes, for example, for control, diagnosis, training and prediction. Almost every test allows you to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the technology, but on the basis of which the training was conducted.
Each of the test tasks contains a description of some "situation" taken from nature, production, human practical activity, etc.It can be presented in various "languages": verbal, symbolic language, graphs, drawings, etc.
In the process of completing the task, it is necessary to remodel the situation by introducing a number of simplifying solutions. The pedagogical test should be understood as a system of tasks of a specific form and content,arranged in order of increasing difficulty, created in order to objectively assess the structure and measure the level of preparednessstudents.
Pedagogical testing is a system that has two main systemic factors: the content of test items that form the best integrity, and the increase in difficulty from task to task. The principle of increasing difficulty and allows you to determine the levelknowledge and skills in a controlled discipline, and the mandatory limitation of testing time is to identify the presence of skills and abilities. It is the difficulty of the task as a subjective concept that is determined empirically, by the magnitude of the proportion of incorrect answers. This difficulty differs from the objectiveindicator - complexity, which is understood as the totality of the number of concepts included in the task, the number of logical connections between them and the number of operations necessary to complete the task. Test items are not questions or tasks, but statements that, depending on the answerstest subjects turn into true or false.
The test task must meet a number of requirements:
- It must have a clear form,differ in the subject purity of the content, be logically correct, technological, have a known difficulty and correlate with the chosen criterion.
It follows from these requirements that test items must be checked empirically. From such tasks it is necessary to distinguish tasks in the test form, which do not have system-forming properties, for example, the system of tasks is not organized according to the principle of increasing difficulty.
All tasks of pedagogical control can be conditionally divided into two classes. One class includes tasks related to the comparison of students' educational achievements. They are solved by normative-oriented testing. Another class includes tasks related to assessing the degree of mastery of students with educational material. They correspond to the criteria-oriented approach - this is a system of tasks that allows you to measure the level of educational achievements in relation to the full amount of knowledge, skills andskills that students are expected to master as a result of a particular course of study. In this case, the specified volume is called the content area of this test. The educational achievements of individual students are correlated with it,to determine what share of the educational material they have learned, tasks of what level of complexity they can solve.Test scores are translated into the traditional grading system. For example, if the subject has completed more than 90% of the tasks, then he receives an "excellent" rating, having solved from 75 to 90% of the tasks "good", from 50 to 75% - "satisfactory". The criterion is set by the test developers themselves and depends on the complexity of the content and the planned difficulty of the task.
At present, four main forms of test tasks are distinguished in the didactics of the higher military school:
1. Tasks of the closed form, in which the student choosesthe correct answer from several plausible ones to choose from. These plausible answers are called "distractors". The better"distractor", the more often the student "falls" on it, giving the wrong answer. Bad "distractors" that students do not choose because of their absurdity should be removed from the test task.
2. Tasks of an open form, when the answers are given by the students themselves by adding the key word in the statement and turning it into true or false. Such a test statement contains both a question and an answer in one sentence. It should consist of a small number of words (the fewer the better), andthe keyword that the student enters must complete the phrase.When formulating a task, it is important to achieve maximum semantic clarity and unambiguity of the content of the task with a minimum of words.
3. Matching tasks, in which the elements of one set need to match the elements of another set, and the number of elements in the second set should be 20–30% higher than the number of elements of the first set. This provides the learner with a wide field to search.correct answer.
4. Tasks to establish the correct sequence. The student indicates the sequence required by the task using the numbering of operations, actions or calculations. Such tasks are good in those areas of educational or professional activity that are good
Thus, during testing, both knowledge of the educational material and its ignorance are revealed, and this allows it to be widely used for diagnostic purposes, to prepare diagnostic tests with a special selection of content, which allows assessing the strength of knowledge, completeness, depth,flexibility, specificity and generality, consistency and systematic, efficiency.
List of literature:
1. Anastazi, A. Psychological testing: in 2 volumes / transl. from English;foreword K.M. Gurevich, V.I. Dubovsky. - M., 1982.
2. Kim, V.S. Developing function of test tasks / V.S. Kim //
Pedagogical measurements, 2007, No. 1. -S.77-84.
1. Анастази, А. Психологическое тестирование: в 2-х томах / пер. с англ.;предисловие К.М. Гуревича, В.И. Дубовского. - М., 1982.
2. Ким, В.С. Развивающая функция тестовых заданий / В.С. Ким //Педагогические измерения, 2007, № 1. -С.77-84.